This is not a definitive bibliography. It simply lists the books and pamphlets on my book shelf. When I’ve read something I put a brief annotation which gives my own impression or synopsis of the work.
An account of St John’s, Bradford’s move to cell church. Their version of the ‘four Ws’ is welcome, worship, word, works (cf Lings 2003b). The book is good on principles but sometimes a bit short on detail.
As well as a brief but good introduction to the alt.worship scene this book contains a number of worship resources based around the church year. There is some excellent material and a CD-ROM is provided with words, images, movies and songs.
A critique of Christian Schwarz’s ‘Natural Church Development’ which argues that churches will grow if they are healthy in eight dimensions: empowering leadership; gift-oriented lay ministry; passionate spirituality; functional structures; inspiring worship services; holistic small groups; need-oriented evangelism; and loving relationships. These are measured by means of a computer-marked questionnaire. A key principle is that churches should work on their lowest scoring dimension since this is a limiting factor. Booker offers a couple of case studies as well as some criticisms of the approach. He is broadly sympathetic and supportive.
Excellent survey of a wide range of contemporary approaches to evangelism including Alpha, Emmaus, other process evangelism courses, community ministry, Natural Church Development, cell church, church planting and the search for spirituality. It offers a practical and even-handed critique of the different approaches, arguing that local churches must find the balance of approaches which works best for their circumstances.
I found this a difficult book to read. Brewin is a leader of Vaux, an alternative worship community in London and includes some examples of their work throughout the book. He is looking to build a radically emerging church and turns to complex systems theory as a framework to organise some of his thoughts. He doesn't see alternative worship communities as emerging church as they are not 'conjunctive'. It felt a bit polemical to me; Brewin is struggling for a new vision of church, which is good, but this didn't inspire me in the way that it should have.
In three parts. The first looks at the demise of modernism and suggests that we should ‘fund’ the components out of which a new world can be imagined. The second part looks to find an evangelical (as an adjectival form of ‘gospel’) imagination, focusing on memory, covenant and hope. In the third part six pieces of exegesis are offered as example of the approach, honouring the ‘little story’ at the expense of the ‘great story’.
"This provocative addition to "The Church and Postmodern Culture" series offers a lively rereading of Charles Sheldon's "In His Steps" as a constructive way forward. John D. Caputo introduces the notion of why the church needs deconstruction, positively defines deconstruction's role in renewal, deconstructs idols of the church, and imagines the future of the church in addressing the practical implications of this for the church's life through liturgy, worship, preaching, and teaching. Students of philosophy, theology, religion, and ministry, as well as others interested in engaging postmodernism and the emerging church phenomenon, will welcome this provocative, non-technical work."
Performance has always been important in preaching; today it is even more so. I rate it as one of the three key aspects of effective preaching to a 21st century audience—the triumvirate being story, testimony and performance. Jana Childers offers insights from the theatre to illumine the preacher’s art. She addresses a number of topics including preaching and dramatic form; preaching as performance; preaching and the creative process; skills preachers can learn from actors; attitudes preachers can learn from the actors ‘habitus’ (‘body techniques’) and worship as theatre. As well as discussion of the links between preaching and theatre, Childers also offers a lot of practical advice on such areas as breathing, articulation, eye contact and so on. A useful book which will proved a good resource for any preacher wishing to engage better with his or her listeners.
Looks at the challenge youth congregations can pose to the church. Suggests an ecclesiology and missiology which support the development of separate but related congregations.
Church of England report, surveying a range of ‘emerging church’ initiatives (they prefer the term ‘fresh expressions of church’) and making some suggestions for the future shape of the church. It has been hugely influential and is still an excellent introduction to the whole area of missional church.
An Anglican perspective on small communities in church growth and development. He distinguishes ‘family churches’, with fewer than 50 members from ‘pastoral churches’ with more than 50 members. A family church with a full-timer minister may well grow. Others, with only one full-time minister are likely to decline. Therefore small groups are needed to sustain and grow the church. The purpose of a transforming community is to build members’ relationships, to learn together and to support each others’ ministries, sometimes in pursuit of a common task. These groups are to be the ‘building blocks’ of the church. Croft’s communities are not as radically mission-focused as cell church, nor as justice focused as base communities. At times seems a bit like an Anglican fudge!
The first three chapters are from Nick Spencer and Yvonne Collins, outlining their research with those who have little or no contact with church. The second part of the collection consists of four 'responses'. Ann Richards looks at contemporary spirituality and the evangelistic encounter; Mark Ireland offers practical suggestions for the local church; Rob Frost explores alternative spirituality; and Stephen Croft looks at listening and speaking in contemporary evangelism.
"How do people in recovery from addition become disciples? What would a church plant of recovering drug addicts and alcoholics look like? Is Alcoholics Anonymous a model of emerging church for the 21st century?"
"What fresh expressions of church are beginning among under 5s and their families? Why can’t we simply invite them to existing church? How is spirituality nurtured in children of this age? When does work with under 5s qualify as a fresh expression of church and what do they have to teach us?"
"Many of us long to be part of a church that goes beyond mere shallow acquaintance to caring for one another as lives are shared together. Is this kind of community as elusive as sometimes it can seem? What can we learn from intentional Christian communities that have turned the dream into reality? What would they say were the classic mistakes to avoid? How does community aid them in their mission task? What will help us plant fresh expressions of church whose community life is authentic?"
"What might help the communities in fresh expressions of church grow beyond good starts to longer lasting effectiveness? What can we learn from intentional Christian communities that will help fresh expressions of church grow mature community? What were their catalysts for deeper growth? What would they say were indicators of a mature community? What level of personal cost does being part of such a community require of us?"
Is it possible to do church with adults with severe learning disabilities? We have some experience here as we go monthly into a local residential home to lead worship. It's very challenging and rewarding. But it isn't church; not yet anyway. In this book Clare Dalpra visits a number of Fresh Expressions dedicated to the culture of adults with a learning disability (and their carers) including Fenland Community Church and Focus Service: Sheffield Church. She also reflects on the learning such churches offer to other Fresh Expressions.
Written by one who is in favour of the principle of shared leadership but sceptical about many of its manifestations. It sometimes seems that he protests against a rather shallow view of ministry teams but his warnings should be heeded by everyone who is starry-eyed about the ease and effectiveness of collaborative leadership. An accompanying website offers more background and detail.
Donovan worked with the Masai in Kenya. Starting with his realisation that, for all the good things that the mission was doing, there were no conversations about God with the Masai, he realised that, “Evangelization is a process of bringing the gospel to people where they are, not where you would like them to be.” So he decided to just go and talk with them. Putting practice before theory, he discovers the importance of stripping away all the cultural accretions of Western Christendom and retranslating the gospel into the culture of the people. Despite its focus on Africa in the 1960s, this is a seminal book for approaching emerging church and postmodern proclamation.
A critique of current church structures. Down claims that the parish system is geared to maintenance and that it hinders mission. He writes from a conservative charismatic and modernist perspective and draws from his own experiences in Fountain of Life and from others such as Carpenter’s Arms in Deal, Oak Tree Fellowship in Acton and Norwich Community Church. He also argues that maintenance churches need pastoral leadership while missionary churches need apostolic leadership. The traditional parish church will not change—one strategy is to leave it; another is to build a new church alongside the old.
In the US, though not so much in the UK, a distinction is sometimes made between emerging church and emergent church. Mark Driscoll places himself in the emerging camp (as opposed to, say, Brian MacLaren who is emergent). Mark is the pastor of Mars Hill in Seattle. This book tells the story of the development of Mars Hill from its tiny beginnings to its current 4000+ megachurch status.
It raises all sorts of questions for me since some of Driscoll’s assumptions—that size matters, that real men don’t wear pink, that women cannot lead, that Biblical truth requires one particular way of reading the Bible, and so on—are ones which I cannot share. Yet it is always good to read books which challenge one’s assumptions and ‘Confessions’ certainly does that.
Where the book is really strong is in its detailed account of the trials and triumphs of leading a church into growth. Mark is especially strong in laying bare his own weaknesses and prejudices. Although he clearly has a strong sense of his own importance to the church he is not afraid to expose himself as someone who is often tempted and needs a lot of support. If only more church leaders were able to do this!
If you are into apophatic theology (God cannot be known through the mind but only encountered as a person), if you are a fan of postmodern Bible reading, if you are convinced that Jesus came to preach kingdom rather than personal salvation, then do read this book. It offers an important witness to the fact that it is possible to build a missional church with an ‘old-fashioned’ conservative reformed theology—at least in the US.
I can’t say that I enjoyed the book, it often seemed too dogmatic and intolerant for me, but I was certainly stimulated by it and some of Mark Driscoll’s principles are worth pondering in any context.
Everts and Sharpe are US Campus missionaries. In this book they reflect on their experiences with postmodern sceptical young people and suggest that there are five thresholds which have to be crossed on the pathway to faith:
1 Trusting a Christian—many unchurched people simply don’t trust Christians. No progress is possible until Christians prove themselves to be trustworthy.
2 Becoming Curious—just because they trust you doesn’t mean that they are interested in the fact that you are a Christian. You need to be the ‘difference that makes a difference’ for them to start getting curious.
3 Opening Up to Change—there is quite a bit step from curiosity about your faith to considering that perhaps they might need to change.
4 Seeking After God—there are many kinds of change possible. Seeking after God is only one of them…
5 Entering the Kingdom—there is still quite a big gap between seeking after God and making a specific commitment to enter the kingdom of God.
Finney argues that there are three approaches to evangelism in the Bible, focusing on kerugma [message], euangelion [good news] and musterion [mystery]. All three are needed for a balanced approach. He offers a brief and interesting history of evangelism up to 1980 and then looks at the ‘new evangelism’ with its emphasis on nurture groups, and nurture courses such as Alpha & Emmaus (Finney was one of the authors of Emmaus). He then moves on to explore the implications of ‘evangelising Athens’, which requires us to start with something other than sin and forgiveness such as creation, hospitality of mystery (sample addresses on these themes are provided in an appendix). The new monasticism (such as St Thomas, Sheffield) follows, and some helpful thoughts on leadership, ritual and the emerging church.
A brilliant, rich, and thought-provoking book. Anna Carter Florence explores the rich heritage of women preachers in the US. Partly because of their lack of learning and their lack of formal authority they learned to preach from the heart, sharing their own responses to the text.
Florence explores the work of some of these preachers, draws on Ricoeur and Brueggemann and offers some practical approaches to preaching as testimony, which she argues is an invitation to believe rather than a command to obey. Testimony preaching is not about the preacher; it is much more than simply talking about your own life and experiences. It is all about God’s word; it is about what happened to you when you encountered this text at this time—what did you really see or experience, rather than what your training or the commentaries or your concept of orthodoxy tells you that you ought to have seen or experienced.
There are some really practical tips and exercises offered to help with a three part process. Firstly, attend to the text, live in it. Florence offers a number of exercises to help, including writing the text out, carrying it in your pocket, memorising it, underlining words & phrases which strike you and so on.
Next describe the text by making a list of the images which appear and reflecting on them, or write a dialogue between the characters, or even rewrite it the way you would like it to have been!
Finally, testify. Reflect on your own response and decide how much to share, how much you dare, how much your listeners can bear. Testimony preaching is risky—perhaps too risky for some preachers and some congregations—but can be a great way of connecting with those postmodern people who reject authority but who respond to authentic testimony.
Frazee comments on rising tide of individualism in the church. He argues the need for a common purpose based around authority, common creed, traditions, standards and common mission. In his church they are working this out by agreeing ten core beliefs, ten core practices and ten core virtues. They then implement these via a four-fold process: the worship service which is to inspire, the Sunday mid-sized groups (50) which are to instruct, mid-week small groups (10) which involve and personal introspection.
In some sense a follow-up to ‘The Shaping of Things to Come’, Frost explores some of the implications of living missionally in a post-Christian culture in four sections: dangerous memories, dangerous promises, dangerous criticism and dangerous songs. Frost is part of a new monastic community called ‘smallboatbigsea’ which has a rule of life known as BELLS: they will Bless at least one other member of the community each day; they will Eat together every Sunday evening and with one or more members on two more occasions each week; they will Listen to God every day; they Learn from the Gospels each week; and remember that they are Sent into the world to share the Good News.
Stimulating and provocative book which urges a change from Christendom mode to missional mode. This involves moving from being attractional, dualistic and hierarchical to incarnational, messianic and apostolic. Although a little heavy at times the book is full of ideas and provocative propositions. For instance, a missional church needs APEPT (apostolic, prophetic, evangelical, pastoral and teaching) leadership as per Ephesians 4, rather than just a pastoral and teaching leadership which serves to (try to) maintain the status quo of the Christendom church.
A six-part course which introduces Christian ideas and principles in a way which is designed to connect with those who are seeking ‘spirituality’. Includes a CD of meditations and music.
Sally was a member of the team which produced the Mission-Shaped Church report and has practical experience of fresh expressions in the countryside. She is aware of the particular issues facing the rural church but she does not exaggerate them. The book recognises the power of inherited expressions in the countryside and argues strongly for the mixed economy—we should nurture inherited church and also start fresh expressions for those who would not be at home with traditional styles.
The book is very practical, full of case studies and stories of rural initiatives. There is enough to encourage anyone in the countryside that change and growth are possible with prayer, faith and hope; plus a fair amount of perseverance. Sally also offers some useful thoughts on how to restructure the church for mission in the countryside.
This is a very useful book. It offers a good introduction to the principles and practice behind mission-shaped church and will be of particular use to anyone who is in rural ministry or who just has a passion to see the church grow in the countryside.
Barbara Glasson is a Methodist minister. She started 'Somewhere Else', usually known as the 'bread church' in Liverpool. There, in rooms above a radical bookshop in the heart of Liverpool, people come together to make bread and also sometimes to study, pray and worship together. What makes the bread church special is its inclusiveness and the depth of conversation and sharing which is engendered by the act of bread making. Barbara Glasson has now moved on to another post and this book is a series of reflections on community and what it is to be church, based around the process of making bread. Do not expect to find too many facts or details about how Somewhere Else actually operates or its history. Instead, let Barbara confront you with a vision of God's kingdom which may be uncomfortable to some but which I found inspiring and challenging.
An excellent book. Gibbs and Bolger very firmly identify emerging churches as postmodern churches; groups of Christians who are struggling with re-expressing the gospel in ways which make sense and are authentic to the emerging culture. The book is based on a five-year project in which they interviewed 50 emerging church leaders in UK & US. A feature of the book is the appendix which contains mini-autobiographies of those leaders. I found these most enlightening and often very moving.
Gibbs & Bolger identify three core practices of emerging church: identifying with the life of Jesus; transforming secular space; and commitment to community as a way of life. These lead to six other shared areas: welcoming the stranger; serving with generosity; participating as producers; creating as created beings; leading as a body; and taking part in spiritual activities. The book is enlivened throughout by frequent quotes from the practitioners.
The commentary from Gibbs & Bolger is always helpful, offering a theological overview of emerging church theology and practice - offering, for instance, a contrast between a gospel of salvation (centred on Paul and the epistles) and a gospel of the kingdom (centred on Jesus and the gospels) - though, of course, a postmodern church does not set these up as opposites.
They also note the importance of some key texts such as Dallas Willard's "Divine Conspiracy" and N. T. (Tom) Wright's "Jesus and the Victory of God". All in all this is a really good book, very readable, and a must-read if you want to know more about the emerging church.
A report on the findings of the Adults’ Spirituality Project at the University of Nottingham which used a focus group and individual interview approach to canvass the views of 31 people in Nottingham who identified themselves as spiritual or religious but had no contact with organised religion.
A series of short pieces including a brief account of New Way in Plymouth (see Summers 2003), a small group on Broadwater Farm, working with non-church goers, moving to dialogue sermons, communities of households in the Northampton area, free lunches and other ‘gospel projects’ in Cambridge, church in a pub in Sheffield, a small group in Tiptree.
Advice on developing and growing small Christian communities of the base ecclesial type. Includes a check list of pointers and an account of the New Way Pastoral Cycle: Experience—Analysis—Reflection—Action—Celebration—Experience…
Another anthology, with a Methodist minister who learned by listening, building A New Way in South Devon, doing a social audit in an inner city, change catalysed by the arrival of refugees, Peter Price thinking about the future, change in service pattern leading to community change, being church on a traffic island, being at the heart of community-led regeneration, a pets’ service, exploring forgiveness amongst the unchurched, the need to take risks.
A review of New Age and Pagan beliefs, showing their similarities and differences. Hollinghurst also offers some helpful suggestions on ways of connecting with new agers and pagans and how the gospel might be authentically shared.
An A4 photocopiable workbook with lots of good ideas and resources. Sections include: The Emerging Spiritual Age; Listening to the World Around Us; Rites of Passage; Times and Seasons; Developing the Church as the Spiritual Focus of the Community; Wholeness and Healing; Going Out to Our Communities; Sacred Britain; Being With People of Alternative Spiritualities; Moving Into Action. There are also a number of good and pointed cartoons from Chris Morgan and also the questionnaire that Yvonne Richmond used for her Beyond the Fringe research.
Hopkins argues that cell is an important strand in church life (Acts 2:24—met in homes & temple) and offers this definition of church: “a Jesus community of disciple-making disciples.” The rest of the study offers four case studies, written by local leaders, showing how cell can be used flexibly in different contexts at Holy Apostles, Leicester (cell outreach on estate); St Alkmund’s, Derby (youth cell in non-cell church); St Mark’s, Haydock (‘big bang’ transition from home groups to cells) & Harvest, Margate.
Really interesting book about medium-sized communities (between cell and congregation) which exist for a specific mission-focused purpose. Clusters developed in St Thomas, Crookes in Sheffield. According to the book, "Clusters gain identity and purpose from a united mission vision, being called to a clear geographic or network focus and engaging with the social patterns of that culture and context." (p. ) Members of a cluster will probably belong to different cell group or different congregations because they are chosen (often self-selecting) on the basis of shared interest. The book offers case studies of a number of different implementations of the cluster principle.
Exploration of postmodernism and Christian responses to it. “…I was brought up to believe that everything essential to the gospel…was present in the New Testament, I still believe that, but in a different way…Rather it is like a seed which contains the whole plant but which unfolds different aspects at different times.
Detailed and seemingly fair account of the success and failure of the Nine O’Clock Service (NOS) which was started by Chris Brain at St Thomas, Crookes in Sheffield. Offers a warning for the church about the abuses possible in fresh expressions of church but also points to the pioneering work done by NOS.
Fascinating book looking at the methods of missionaries like St Patrick, arguing that many of their methods are appropriate for a postmodern generation. Hunter shows the differences between the Celtic and Roman approaches and suggests that the Celts relied on hospitality and a group-based outreach. They were offering an atmosphere of constant prayer (though specific prayers for many of life’s daily tasks), a radical understanding of the culture of those amongst whom they worked and an acknowledgement of the ‘excluded middle’ (from “The Flaw of the Excluded Middle” by Paul Heibert, Missiology: An International Review 10:1, 1982, which argues that enlightenment Christianity focuses only on earth (realm of reason) and heaven (realm of sacred) and ignores the middle ground (realm of superstition). Yet increasingly, the new age is offering people solace here. The church should offer authentic comfort by engaging with people where they are now, just as the Celtic missionaries did.
Ingram argues that the ambiguity of Ecclesiastes is intentional and very much in tune with postmodern sensibility. For instance, we can read 1:4-11 as showing the futility of life or as the wonder of creation. Both readings are valid.
Excellent book, which analyses UK church attendance statistics (especially C of E from 1989-1998) to go beneath the overall figure of decline. Jackson points out that one in five churches is either static or growing; that small churches are more likely to be growing than large ones; that growth can be found across all styles of churchmanship; ethnically mixed churches are more likely to grow; children & youth workers have a major impact on attendance; that growth is most likely when the incumbent has served between seven and thirteen years and when the incumbent is younger. Jackson offers practical suggestions to encourage all congregations to face and tackle the issue of decline.
Johnston, Graham 2001, Preaching to a Postmodern World: A Guide to Reaching Twenty-first Century Listeners, Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.
After an examination of what postmodernity means, Johnston offers four ‘rules for engagement’: don’t engage at the expense of the message; communication takes two—and time; risk involvement; address where you live. He continues with chapters on challenging listeners; obstacles to postmodern preaching; how to make inroads into contemporary culture; and some practices for engagement.
Jones, Kirk Byron 2004, The Jazz of Preaching: How to Preach with Great Freedom and Joy, Nashville: Abingdon Press.
Do you read your sermon from a prepared text? Is everything you preach ‘nailed down’ before you start speaking? If so, how can the Holy Spirit ever get through to lead and inspire you in the moment of delivery? (Maybe that thought is just too scary!)
On the other hand, do you just ‘let it all hang out’, arriving with just a vague idea of what you intend to say? If so, how can you hope to have your listeners come with you on your journey without getting either lost or seasick? Kirk Jones might argue that jazz offers a way through this dilemma. Jazz is structured and disciplined yet free and improvisatory. Byron argues that preachers can learn a lot from listening to jazz and studying the way jazz musicians work.
I am not a great fan of jazz myself, blues and some modern jazz being the only forms which I really connect with, but I find Byron’s arguments persuasive. He stresses the need to preach with freedom and joy and offers insights into how we might do this, with chapters focusing on dreaming; creativity; improvisation (I particularly liked the story about Winton Marsalis and the mobile phone which he recounts on page 80); dialogue; blues and joy.
Surveys differences between ‘seeker-sensitive’ (modern) and emerging (postmodern) approaches. Helpful thoughts on relationship between Jesus (positive affect) and Christians (negative affect) as perceived by emerging generations. Sections on worship, preaching (notes that for moderns: FACT influences BELIEF influences BEHAVIOUR, whereas for emerging culture: EXPERIENCE influences BEHAVIOUR influences BELIEF), evangelism (focus on being a co-worker with Jesus in the kingdom as a way of finding purpose in life) & leadership. Quite a strong conservative evangelical bias and written for a similar audience though much of use for others.
Larson, Bruce & Osborne, Ralph 1970, The Emerging Church, Waco TX: Word Books.
The first book I have found to use the term ‘emerging church’. It's out of print now though you can get it from various second-hand dealers. Larson & Osborne do not use the term as we use it today; their book is basically a look at church in the 1970s and an attempt to discern some of the emerging trends. A quote: ‘Renewal is a concept foreign to the emerging Church. Renewal implies that the Church was once what God intended it to be and that our task is to bring back that golden age. From its earliest beginnings until now, the Church has been in the process of becoming, and it shall always be so. If the Church is true to its Lord, it may never properly say that it has “emerged.”’ Key themes are new forms of worship, development of lay ministry and so on.
Leach, John 2005, How to Use Symbol and Action in Worship, Grove Worship Series W184, Cambridge: Grove Books.
Useful little book focusing on the use of the senses in modern worship. After offering a brief theological justification for multi-sensory worship, Leach looks at the environment for worship and then offers a number of practical suggestions for using symbols and actions in different parts of a service.
Bible study without Bibles? That’s what Janet Lees recommends. In this book she offers an approach which enables collaborative work within a group to build up shared remembered versions of biblical texts. By focusing on what is remembered people also come to share their own stories, especially those which resonate with the text.
Lees offers a number of different ways of working with remembered texts, some giving more aids to memory than others. She uses this approach in Sunday worship. I haven’t but I have found it to be very effective in small group work. There is an egalitarian feel to the approach which helps everyone to engage and participate.
A practical and provocative book. I recommend it.
"Living Proof is the name of a small Christian
community working for community development in deprived areas of Cardiff and
It is a new form of church for a Youth underclass, that could not start with the provision of worship."
"June 1997 saw "Unit 8" open on Hirst Wood, a council housing estate, out of sight in prosperous Shipley, West Yorkshire. The estate has no community facilities - only a small industrial estate. St Peter's members began to work with local children, young people and the elderly..."
"In the paramilitary town of Lisburn, Northern Ireland, Capt. Martin Garner (CA) began a Cell Church Plant in an attempt to reach beyond religious and tribal labels. This issue tells this story alongside answering the questions “What is cell?”, “Where is it rightly different from existing church?” and “How do cell and existing church work together?”"
Looks at the work of Eternity, a youth church plant in Bracknell. Eternity is values based and open to constant change. It uses cell groups, monthly congregational gatherings and events which are designed for seekers to be comfortable in (e.g. they moved from café-style to dance-style because that seemed to be where the young people were going).
"New ventures proliferated in the 1990’s, so much so that people can already refer to “traditional church plants”. The range is almost bewildering, but together they raise a clamour insisting that old ways of being Church cannot have the last word. How can we decide what new ventures are valid? How should good new ways be treated and welcomed?"
Account of outreach activity in Blackheath onto an estate. Charts the changes in strategy from ‘Come’ to ‘Go’ and from ‘doing to’ to ‘working with’.
Accounts of two network churches in Canterbury diocese—The Carpenter’s Arms in Deal & Harvest in Margate.
"Why bother to plant multiple congregations? A historical Oxfordshire town thought it a worthwhile option and with trebled membership consequently, what are the lessons we can learn? What did they get right? What are they still learning - like making a transition to cells?"
"Who can lead new churches? Lay leaders exist across the spectrum of emerging churches. As many as one third of church plants have been lay led. Is this a welcome throwing off of the shackles of clericalism? Does it work? Where it has proved too much, can we make church simpler? "
"Have you ever been faced with having to revitalise a church? Is this replanting or something else? How many elements of the old should continue? How do you mix the old venue and the new vision? How do you mix the inherited people and the incomers? Can it work or is it just hard graft?"
Looks at a couple of midweek (Monday, actually) afternoon congregations which serve primary kids and their parents. Asks whether they are churches or congregations. Argues that there are many people for whom Sunday church is not an option.
George Lings visits a number of alternative worship congregations including Sanctuary (Bath), Revive (Leeds) and Visions (York). As well as describing his experiences he makes an interesting distinction between 'Seeker' worship and Alternative worship: seeker takes the mysterious out of evangelical presentation to outsiders; alternative puts ritual and worship at the centre for insiders; seeker subjugates church culture to engagement with secular culture, alternative rejoices in the the richness of church culture as a way to live in secular culture; seeker puts evangelism at the top of its agenda, alternative puts worship top; seeker tries to convince and persuade, alternative is laid back and non-directive. Everyone will no doubt disagree with these distinctions, but I find them salutary and helpful; after all, as the statistician George Box put it, "All models are wrong. Some models are useful."
"The decline of the Church in the West means many Christian leaders are forced to taste a bittersweet draught of hopes fulfilled and deferred, liberally laced with failure and even shame. Our world seems so different to the joyful simplicity of the new Church in the New Testament. Where else in the Scriptures could we look to cope and hope?"
"Within the UK Church Planting movement, Holy Trinity Brompton in London has been one of the leaders. How transferable is their model of planting? Is this dynastic cloning or intentional diversity?"
Story of anglo-catholic Damian Feeney, who sees the Eucharist as the heart of mission and spent 18 months doing a Sunday Eucharist at Asda in Preston, at 10:00 in the 30 minutes before the store opened. It was also broadcast over the store tannoy. The ministry also had a prophetic edge, as when the harvest service at the store challenged shoppers about fair trading. Father Damian then moved to a pub for a year and then into a newly-built local Millennium Hall with a 5:30 Eucharist on a Saturday evening (between Grandstand & going out to the pub).
"Suppose a middle class church was called to work on a run down council estate, frighteningly called “Little Beirut”. How much could they know about how to tackle the task? How much could they know at the start about how it would work out? Was that why they called the church plant “Stepping Stones”? Is this some parable to the wider church today as it faces a cross cultural mission in its own backyard?"
Studies of two network churches—The Net in Huddersfield & B1 in Birmingham—both of which were formed with strong diocesan involvement.
Account of the cell experiment conducted at St Winfrid’s, High Wycombe by Paul Bayes (appointed National Advisor for Mission & Evangelism in 2004). Instead of adopting the recommended ‘big bang’ approach to introducing cell principles, they adopted a parallel approach, starting with one cell and adding others when demand from existing members required. Cells use the Faith Community Baptist Church of Singapore approach with emphasis on a set of core values—Jesus at the centre; everyone in ministry; every member growing; multiplication; sacrificial love, loving community & honesty. They also use welcome, worship, witness & word rather than the more usual Western versions (see Astin 2002).
The rather messy story of the development of a youth ministry to unchurched young people in Reading. Based in a traditional church building with a small declining conservative congregation the young curate (effectively vicar of the church) has been enabled by the rector and the diocese to perform some innovative youth ministry and church planting (though he eschews this term).
Lings has always been sceptical about ecumenical church plants. Here he investigates two multi-denomination (not quite the same thing) developments on new housing estates. By respecting one another’s traditions fruitful partnerships can be created. Other key qualities are emphasis on community, shared & lay ministry, leaders with overseas mission experience and prime sites for development on the new estates.
OASIS is Edinburgh-based, working with working people. It has a link person in each of 80 offices in the city and began by running lunchtime talks at St Cuthbert’s Church. It then moved to running seminars on relevant topics, such as the introduction of e-commerce. They also run BAE (Business Alpha Edinburgh). Some move on to find an existing church but for others OASIS is their church. Lings also looks at Oasis Uxbridge, started after June Hughman, the incumbent, came across the Edinburgh experience on a sabbatical.
"The influence of Media and arts is huge. However, some say church and the arts don't mix; both can think the one tends to corrupt the other. What might happen in a safe space where both could explore and flourish? Intermission sounded like that. I went to see..."
"As environmental concern grows, Christians are belatedly adding to the ecological voice. The charity A Rocha has been active in this process for over 20 years. They look like communities with a charism. Is this another emerging expression of church? I went to find out …"
"Some say planting churches only works in urban areas. A variety of stories are emerging to contradict that. Others add that rural is fundamentally different. The reality is more subtle. What variety of people are in the countryside and why? Can one expression of church, even the traditional, suit everybody? Rural has always mattered. It is growing in importance as more people move there. It was high time to go and find out more…"
"For fresh expressions of church, is it better to start something alongside the traditional rather than reform it radically? Cells seem to be a natural home for people coming to faith through process evangelism courses. However, how well does cell suit the countryside? Could it be significant for the rural church of the future? I went to see…"
Lings, George 2006a, Northumbria Community: Matching Monastery and Mission, "Encounters on the Edge 29", Sheffield: The Church Army.
The Northumbria Community is a 'new monastic' group; it is dispersed rather than focused on communal living. They have also, like similar groups, dispensed with (or reinterpreted) the vows of chastity and poverty. After some reflections on the rise of new monasticism, Lings gives an account of the history and development of the Northumbria Community. He then suggests that the Community offers a number of gifts to the wider church, which are characterised by pairs of words: availability and vulnerability; alone and together; monastery and mission; abbot and bishop; worship and charism.
Lings offers a number of models to help with thinking about mission-shaped church, including Acts 1:8—Judea, Samaria and the end of the earth., which corresponds to the fringe, the dechurched and the unchurched. His concern is that too much of what passes for fresh expressions & mission-shaped church is actually working only in Judea. Very stimulating and challenging.
"The western world is known for the stress of busy lives. Many say they own more than previous generations, but never have enough time. How can we create ways of being church which are simpler yet keep essentials? What sort of meetings actually enable people to meet and grow as disciples of Christ. Can time for family, work and friends beyond the church circle be protected? How simple is it to keep it this simple? We found a community setting out on this journey and wanted to tell the story."
An account of two cafe churches, Soul Cafe in Chester Green, Derby and Cafe Church @ The Well in Sheffield. Soul Cafe runs once a month from 8:00 pm to 10:00 pm in the church building of St Paul, Chester Green. According to Lings, the evening has the feel of a folk club with songs, chat and informality. Soul Cafe has two other, related events each month: and Open Mic night two or three times a year where anyone can come and contribute and Soul Space where people can meet to explore further. Cafe Church at the Well, the worship complex of St Bartholomew's in Sheffield met monthly at 5:00 pm but numbers quickly dropped and it struggled to continue. He ends by reflecting on the nature of cafe church.
In this issue George Lings visits Cafeplus+ in Haddenham and Pendleford Oasis run by St Paul, Tettenhall in Wolverhampton. Cafeplus+ meets once a month in the village hall and runs from 09:30 am to 12:30 pm. There are a number of spaces available in the hall and Cafeplus+ provides a quiet space, room for teenagers, a large hall for displays as well as the cafe. Pendleford Oasis is different; it is a permanent church-run cafe built in a new housing estate as part of a church and community initiative. Food and drink are cheap and Fair Trade and community groups meet there regularly. Lings then offers a taxonomy of cafe church, depending on purpose and 'target audience' on the one hand and location on the other.
"Surely three services on a Sunday morning provides enough challenge and diversity; why change it to ten half hour sessions? This is a good example of spotting changes in background culture and shaping church around the needs of those who find its patterns don't fit. Deeper than that, what happens when existing churches are serious about discipleship, creating community and enabling lay ministry to the point that clergy cannot provide all that is needed? Come and Go is far more than a search for relevance and is turning this church inside out. We wanted to find out how it worked."
"What happens when the pioneer moves on? What did hindsight reveal about strengths and mistakes? We are grateful to two leaders who were candid about their own stories. It so happens both are examples of youth congregation, but what they saw contains valuable insights for all fresh expressions, especially those planting into networks, and the honesty about pressures that exist for all pioneer leaders of fresh expressions of church."
"One of the challenges before the church is the call to urban areas which exhibit the reality of a post-Christendom society and are in the grip of poverty. Can we find ways to create the kind of Christian community that engages well in areas where previously hope had dried up and the Christian presence has all but vanished?"
"Given the age profile of many of our churches, why do we need to keep older people as a priority in our mission endeavours? Is the significant diversity of those aged between 50 and 105 fully appreciated? Are fresh expressions of church wanted by older people? How do you know whether a ministry is also church and what does fresh really mean?"
A review and reflection of the position of a number of network churches. Using some good figures from Harvest New Anglican Church in Margate (see Encounters No. 7) Lings analyses the nature of network church noting, for instance, that network church has a much smaller fringe than geographical church. Network churches appear to have a higher than average turnover and need to be equipped to cope with that. In particular because the strength of a network depends more on its few highly connected hubs rather than the overall number of nodes (members), the loss of key people can be very damaging.
"We are now confident that fresh expressions of Church can be started, but more subtle questions remain about how they develop over time and are sustained well. When an initial fresh expression reproduces, how is it affected and what are the dynamics of creating a family of fresh expressions? How does ecclesial DNA engage with a variety of contexts? We found a rural example living through these transitions and report the evolving story"
George Lings is a companion in the Northumbria and spent a sabbatical there and with the Anglican Franciscans at Hilfield in Dorset in September 2009. He also visited Taize and Citeaux. Out of his experiences he proposes that monastic community has seven spaces—Cell; Chapel; Chapter; Cloister; Garden; Refectory; Scriptorium—and that each has a vital part to play. Lings examines the role of each and their part in the monastic rules of life. He also argues that, "God always raises up the monastic to show the Church what it sould look more like." (p 32)
The seven spaces could be a useful lens for looking at Fresh Expressions. For instance, when a group of ordinands came to Xpressions cafe, one said that he would have a problem doing what we did as their church hall was 100 yards away from the church (ours are joined). I suggested that he make the walk part of the experience. The notion of cloister would have been useful here. Indeed, as we look to build community, I can see some, but not all, of the seven spaces in Xpressions Cafe. Can and should we try to add the others? There are further resources on the Encounters website including a comprehensive set of notes. There is also an issue of The Sheffield Centre Research Bulletin dedicated to this topic, where each of the seven members of the team reflect on one of the seven spaces.
I'm a bit biased about this one since it's about the fresh expression which I oversee: Xpressions cafe in the Chet Valley Benefice in South Norfolk. George came to visit us twice and his incessant gentle questioning was hugely helpful to the whole team. It seems to me that he has provided a very fair reflection of what we do and why we do it. He also offers some helpful theoretical understandings and challenges us to think about how we can take the Cafe forward.
Summary of ‘Mission-Shaped Church’ with commentary.
A sober review of church planting by most of the major denominations and new churches during the 1990s, together with a reasonably optimistic look forward to its possibilities in the future. [May now be unavailable.]
In liquid worship members of the congregation choose which of a number of prayer stations or worship zones they will visit, and in which order. After exploring a number of examples and options for liquid worship—whether for a small group or whole church; whether for a whole service or part of it—Lomax & Moynagh explore the rationale for this kind of approach. They claim that it can have a number of positive benefits including reducing self-indulgence, offering a chance to develop good liturgical principles; offering possibilities for all-age worship and recognising that the Spirit ‘never leaves identical fingerprints’. They also argue that liquid worship encourages us to re-think our notions of community and can help us develop closer and more authentic communities. They end by suggesting some principles for getting started with liquid worship. The accompanying website gives plans of a layout for liquid worship and an example of a Mothering Sunday service.
Lowry, Eugene 2001, The Homiletical Plot: The Sermon as Narrative Art Form, Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.
Eugene Lowry is Professor of Homiletics at He is also a preacher and a jazz pianist - the latter two being not unconnected. He has written a number of books on narrative preaching, of which this is the best known.
The Homiletical Plot suggests that preachers should structure their sermons according to the basic structure which underpins many stories. After all, Jesus told stories far more often than he gave three-point sermons!
According to Lowry's scheme the basic narrative plot has five parts: Oops!--upsetting the equilibrium; Ugh!--analysing the discrepancy; Aha!--disclosing the clue to resolution; Whee!--experiencing the gospel; and Yeah!--anticipating the consequences.
Lowry explains these in the chapters which form the heart of the book. It's good but I only gave four stars because it's a bit too theoretical for my taste. I would have liked some examples of sermons which used the format; these would have helped bring the ideas to life. I have never constructed a sermon in exactly the way that Lowry outlines; nevertheless, I do sometimes use his schema to check the structure of my own sermons and I find that they often follow his structure. In such cases the book can be useful for refining what I've already done.
Overall a good book; any preacher will benefit from reading it.
I encourage my students to preach without notes. They are often horrified at first but when they give it a try many find the benefits. Lybrand argues that there is nothing in the Bible to support preaching with notes; all the examples are to the contrary. He claims that 'preaching on your feet' can be learned by anyone, rather than being an innate skill gifted only to a few. There are number of pre-determined structures, or templates, which can help the noteless preacher - without a clear sense of structure there is danger of wandering off or drying up. Preaching without notes facilitates good performance, which is so important in a postmodern context; whoever came across a stand-up comedian who used notes? Lybrand is not really concerned with postmodern preaching, however, and I found the book a bit dry and too focused on great preachers of the past such as Spurgeon. Nevertheless there are some good tips here.
Mann, Alan 2005, Atonement for a 'Sinless' Society: Engaging with an Emerging Culture, Milton Keynes: Paternoster.
Alan Mann argues that postmodern people have been able to push away the notion of sin at the expense of a consequent emphasis on the self and its inadequacies, which he identifies as shame. Mann explores the notion of shame at some length, reviewing the literature. He brings out the sense of disconnectedness and alienation felt by someone suffering from shame. Mann focuses on the importance of story-telling in a postmodern age—especially the stories we tell about ourselves. He looks at narrative therapy which aims to help people tell a different story about themselves and suggests that Jesus is the ultimate narrative therapist, offering everyone the chance to participate in a radically new story in which shame is replaced by a sense of being loved and being lovable.
The fictional account of conversations between Dan, a disillusioned pastor, and Neo his guide and mentor into the world of postmodern Christianity. Very readable.
Written in McLaren’s easy narrative style this book explores how to do evangelism by being a spiritual friend, walking with somebody on their journey, not trying to lead but just to be there listening and caring. He illustrates this with the story of his interaction, largely through e-mails, with ‘Alice’, who he met briefly and who he nurtured through her struggle to faith.
An exposition, with Dan & Neo from ‘A New Kind of Christian’, of the story we find ourselves in—Creation, Crisis, Calling (of Abraham & Jews), Conversation (with priests, prophets, poets & philosophers), Christ, Community (of the church) and Consummation. Tends towards a kind of universalism or justification by works in its final stages but has many striking insights and offers a way of inviting people to make sense of their own lives by seeing them as part of this greater story.
McLaren, Brian 2004, A Generous Orthodoxy: Why I Am a Missional, Evangelical, Post/Protestant, Liberal/Conservative, Mystical/Poetic, Biblical, Charismatic/Contemplative, Fundamentalist/Calvinist, ... Emergent, Unfinished Christian, Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
McLaren argues for an eclectic Christianity, pulling the best out of all the many traditions. You can argue that this is just postmodern pick'n'mix theology which lacks Biblical foundation (and there are plenty who do) but I think that he is saying more than this—hence the words 'generous' and 'orthodoxy' in the title. There are truths in the many different Christian traditions; the trick is to discern which are the orthodox ones!
Mallison argues that the small group is the basic building block of the life of the local congregation. It has seven basic purposes: to worship & obey Christ; to live under the authority of God’s Word; to be havens of hope; to foster fellowship; to bring people to a living faith in Christ; to minister to each other; to prepare each other for mission in the world. He distinguishes many kinds of group and offers a lot of practical advice for working with and in groups, including a dozen different kinds of Bible study and different ways of praying together.
Mark Miller is the founder of ‘The Jesus Journey’, an experiential retreat. He argues that the postmodern generation needs more than the traditional sermon. His suggestion is the experiential story—a presentation where attention is paid to environment, engagement of all the senses, use of symbols and participation by the ‘congregation’. Thus the sermon becomes more of an event or a happening. There are some good ideas but for some reason I was a bit underwhelmed by this book.
Mobsby, Ian 2007, Emerging and Fresh Expressions of Church: How Are They Authentically Church and Anglican?
This is essentially Ian Mobsby's thesis for his MA in Pastoral Theology. I'm not sure how much re-writing was undertaken but in my opinion it wasn't enough. The dead hand of 'academic rigour' lies heavily upon its pages. The first five chapters, the meat of the book, take up 80 pages, with 346 references. However, beneath the dry prose is some interesting discussion. The research is based on interviews with members of four emerging churches: Sanctus 1 in Manchester; B1 in Birmingham; Moot in London and Church of the Apostles (COTA) in Seattle. Mobsby argues that of the different kinds of fresh expression listed in "Mission-Shaped Church" only three are 'emerging': alternative worship, cafe church, and network churches; the others are 'inherited'. This seems to be on the basis of their contextual theology: emerging churches use a 'synthetic' model and seek to engage with postmodern culture, while inherited fresh expressions use a 'translation' model which seeks to translate traditional forms and values into postmodern language.
There is also some interesting stuff on what it means to be Anglican and whether emerging churches meet the criteria; Mobsby's assessment is that they do. In many ways the most interesting stuff is to be found in the interviews themselves. These are not included in the book but can be found on the Moot website and then downloaded as pdfs.
Moynagh, Michael 2004, emergingchurch.intro, Oxford & Grand Rapids MI: Monarch Books.
Michael Moynagh offers and excellent introduction to the subject of mission-shaped church and fresh expressions. He covers the ground thoroughly but lightly with plenty of practical examples to ground the theory. The book is well-written and also offers some stimulating and provocative thinking.
Murray, Stuart 2004, Post-Christendom: Church and Mission in a Strange New World (After Christendom), Milton Keynes: Paternoster.
Reflections on the nature of church with illustrations of initiatives ranging from three nuns who started working on an estate and ended up with a ‘church’ to groups which met in each others’ homes to children-led groups. Argues that the margins are where the creative stuff is happening.
Fascinating book, drawing on the work of Edward Hall (proxemics) on the different spaces we all inhabit—public, social, personal & intimate. He argues that we need to be active in all spaces to belong and his conclusions about the value (or otherwise) of small groups in church life are very provocative and worthy of thought and discussion.
Roberts, Paul 1999, Alternative Worship in the Church of England, Grove Worship Series W155, Cambridge: Grove Books.
Roberts characterises alternative worship as having the following characteristics: multi-media environment resulting from intense creativity; use of visuals; use of sound; collaborative leadership; breadth of liturgical resources. He traces the history of the movement from its roots in NOS and then considers the underlying philosophy, seeing the inevitable parallels with postmodernist approaches to text and the importance of shared interpretations of the Bible. He ends with a consideration of the role of alt.worship within the more formal and regulated structures of the C of E.
Rollins, Peter 2006, How (not) to Speak of God, London: SPCK.
Rollins, Peter 2008, The Fidelity of Betrayal: Towards a Church Beyond Belief , London: SPCK.
Roxburgh, Alan J. 1997, Missionary Congregation, Leadership, and Liminality, Harrisburgh PA: Trinity Press International.
"The philosophies of French thinkers Derrida, Lyotard, and Foucault form the basis for postmodern thought and are seemingly at odds with the Christian faith. However, James K. A. Smith claims that their ideas have been misinterpreted and actually have a deep affinity with central Christian claims. Each chapter opens with an illustration from a recent movie and concludes with a case study considering recent developments in the church that have attempted to respond to the postmodern condition, such as the "emerging church" movement. These case studies provide a concrete picture of how postmodern ideas can influence the way Christians think and worship. This significant book, winner of a Christianity Today 2007 Book Award, avoids philosophical jargon and offers fuller explanation where needed. It is the first book in the Church and Postmodern Culture series, which provides practical applications for Christians engaged in ministry in a postmodern world."
Survey of non-believers’ beliefs, based on focus group discussions. Christians are seen as hypocritical and intolerant—though individual Christians are not usually perceived as such; , belief is a private ‘pick and mix’ affair which cannot be articulated. Science—which is not understood—has disproved religion. But many have had ‘spiritual’ experiences, which they are reluctant to speak of. They regret falling public standards of morality and wonder if the church might help improve things.
Drawing on Standing’s experience of youth services, looks at changes in communication style & importance of narrative. Gives results of a small experiment into perceived differences between topical and expository styles of preaching (younger people prefer topical) and impact of multimedia (helps memory retention). Standing explores narrative preaching in some detail, including a lengthy section on Lowry’s work. The book contains a number of sample narrative sermons and also contains insights from a number of interviews which Standing conducted with narrative preachers.
Tells the story of introducing New Way into St Barnabas in inner city Plymouth. Doesn’t go into much detail and looks at principles of base communities—neighbourhood groups, as they call them. Also gives a brief note on his current work with Rattery in the South Hams, Devon, a scattered village of about 500 with an electoral roll of 17, mainly 1662.
Tarrant, Ian 2003, Scripture-Based Liturgies, Grove Worship Series W 175, Cambridge: Grove Books.
Tarrant presents a selection of liturgies which are strongly based on particular passages of scripture. The aim is to match the narrative structure of the Bible text with a corresponding liturgical structure. This is an approach of used and developed in alternative worship. Five sample services follow: Luke 24, an ecumenical Easter communion; John 6, a communion liturgy; Acts 8, service of the word with baptism; Philippians, an office; Hebrews, morning prayer. The accompanying website gives further examples and resources.
Ward, Pete 2002, Liquid Church, Peabody, MA: Hendrickson & Carlisle: Paternoster.
Stimulating and provocative book. Stresses fellowship rather than ‘the’ fellowship. Solid church focuses on attendance at services, size matters, one size fits all and joining the club. Liquid church is networked, dispersed, consumer-oriented and evanescent. Following Dunn’s views on Paul, Ward sees the importance of the phrase “in Christ” to suggest that anyone in Christ is in the church, so that the church can effectively be thought of as a star network with Christ as the hub. Shopping is seen as a search for meaning rather than materialism—the church should accept the challenge. Liquid church moves from meeting need (the need for God, etc.) to satisfying desire—since consumerism is essentially about desire for meaning and spirituality.
Chapters from Jeremy Fletcher ('Text, Authority and Ritual in the Church of England'), Maggi Dawn ('The Art of Liturgy'), Pete Ward ('Personalized Ritual'), Anthony Reddie ('Black Styles, Rituals and Mission for the 21st century'), Ana Draper ('Curiosity... Gave the Cat Nine Lives'), Mike Riddell ('Deep Currents of the Heart') and Jonny Baker ('Ritual as Strategic Practice').
Not really emerging church, but often referred to by American emerging church writers. Warren argues that church health is the key issue, leading naturally to growth. Despite the fact that many US churches have adopted Saddleback’s principles as a programme, Warren focuses on process rather than programme. The book is full of consultant-style models, mnemonics and aphorisms (see table on p119) and has some sound common sense about dealing with the unchurched.
Warren, Robert 1995, Building Missionary Congregations: Towards a Post-Modern Way of Being Church (Board of Mission Occasional Paper), London: Board of Mission.
Healthy Churches are Growing Churches. That is the premise of Robert Warren's Healthy Churches' Handbook. Using a similar approach to Christian Schwarz’s Natural Church Development (NCD), Warren suggests that healthy churches will be strong in seven values, goals and characteristics (as opposed to eight activities in NCD). These are: energised by faith; outward-looking focus; seeks to find what God wants; faces the cost of change and growth; operates as a community; makes room for all; and does a few things and does them well.
The second part of the book contains practical material to help churches become more healthy, including a questionnaire which enables you to develop a profile of your church and to see which areas need the most work. Robert Warren is an experienced mission-oriented priest (he was team rector of St Thomas, Crookes at the time of the Nine O'Clock Service) and much of the material was developed while he was involved with the Church of England's Springboard project.
Writing for American evangelicals, Webber argues that of the five ‘paradigms’ of church history (ancient, medieval, reformation, modern, postmodern) the ancient is of most relevance to the postmodern. He then offers a primer on Christ (focusing on Christus Victor), church, worship, spirituality & authority. Despite its constant references to postmodernity, I found the approach to be disappointingly modernist in many ways (emphasis on a knowable metanarrative, etc.)
Willard, Dallas 1998, The Divine Conspiracy: Rediscovering Our Hidden Life in God, London: Fount.